A solar streetlight, or outdoor light fixture, uses the sun's radiant energy as its engine to generate light. Solar street lighting provides a cost-effective, practical and simple alternative to grid-tied lighting.
Grid-independent operation is also possible without the need for digging, underground wiring, or connections to the utility network. This makes solar street lamps the ideal choice for installations in harsh and remote environments. You will not be effected by carbon emissions and you will have minimal ongoing costs. Even in urban areas, the compelling advantages of solar street light appeal to many outdoor lighting applications like illumination of secondary roads or residential streets, driveways and pathways, parking lots, parking lots, and building perimeters.
A typical solar street light system consists of a sunroof, a solar charger controller, a bank of batteries, and a light assembly.
The main component of a street light with solar panels is the solar panel. The primary function for the solar panel is to convert sunlight in electrical energy. This energy is then stored as solar rechargeable batteries.
Solar panels consist of many individual solar cell. Two types of solar cell are worth mentioning (we won't cover thin-film panels, as they are far less efficient and unable to do the job): monocrystalline and poly-crystalline. Mono-crystalline solar panels convert faster than polycrystalline. This makes them more suitable for solar street lighting performance.
Solar Charge Controller
The solar controller is at the heart of any solar system. This device controls when the charging and lighting are turned on or off. Smart controllers serve three primary functions. They control lighting, dimming, charging and battery charging. The smart controller prevents solar batteries from being overcharged or undercharged. The controller receives the energy from the sun and charges the battery throughout the day. The controller also stores power for the LED street lights during the night. Smart controllers support either a single load or multiple loads.
Smart solar controllers can generate excellent energy and optimize performance. They also allow for monitoring and control of streetlight units via cloud-based software. The smart controller includes a built in communication network and dedicated software that can be used to manage and preventive maintain the entire street light network.
They can be classified into three categories: simple on/off control, pulse width modulation (PWM), or maximum powerpoint tracking (MPPT). The ON/OFF controller is used to prevent overcharge or undercharge and reverse current. PWM controls the current charging of the battery and provides trickle charge. MPPT is a more sophisticated approach used in solar street lights systems that provide high efficiency battery charging.
Solar Rechargeable Battery
A type of electrical battery, the solar batteries is one. It stores electricity from the solar panels during the day, and then provides energy for the night-time LED lamp. As they provide backup power during low energy periods (days without sunlight), the battery's capacity and lifespan is critical. A quality smart solar street light system will have a temperature probe to monitor the battery and optimize its performance (battery voltage and battery temperature) to prolong the battery life cycle.
Solar street lights use two of the most widely used battery technologies: lead-acid or lithium-ion.
Lead-acid battery have a 1500-2500 cycle life, a lifespan between 3 and 5 years, and an energy density of around 30 Wh/kg to 50% depending on their lead density. Lead-acid batteries can take 12 to 16 hours to reach 100 percent capacity. This is acceptable because of solar radiation, which often lasts many hours during the day. The slow charge rate also allows for efficient charging.
Lithium-ion cells have the highest cycle life and energy density of all batteries. The lithiumion battery, a lithiumion transfer cell, is where lithium ions, working ionic elements of electrochemical processes, shuttle through the electrolyte between the anode, and the cathode.Teqlər: Solar street lighting